Visual Impairment and Blindness Resources

These resources cover the basics of visual impairment and blindness, covering the causes, as well as definitions of professional and medical terminology, descriptions of vision examination procedures, simulations, statistics, and recommendations for protecting the eyes and vision. This section also includes information on support groups for parents, families, and consumers, along with advice for environmental adaptations and tips for living with blindness and visual impairment.

For educational resources, please visit the sections grouped under Teaching Resources.

A 73-page handbook on the assessment of functional vision; includes advice on low vision training. Link also includes access to book 1, covering screening for impaired vision. 

Source: World Health Organization (WHO)

Focuses on communication and the interpreter's role when assessing the vision of a person who is deafblind; includes tests and techniques for conducting the assessment.

Source: Lea-Test Ltd.

Guidelines for offering practical assistance to people who are blind or visually impaired, including etiquette tips and sighted guide techniques. Available as a PDF.

Source: Community Eye Health Journal

The Perkins Assistive Device Center is a workshop that creates customized materials for children with disabilities. Custom-made items meet the unique needs of individuals while being affordable, durable and attractive.

Source: Perkins School for the Blind

Visually Impaired and Blind Youth Camp

Three behavioral characteristics are commonly found among individuals with Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Author John Walters stresses the necessity of understanding the whole person and the function of behaviors before considering intervention.

Source: National Center on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB)

In this 11-page document, Sam Morgan describes biobehavioral states and explains why they are important when working with students with profound disabilities.

Source: Hunter College

This article introduces two ways to classify states of awareness in "individuals with profound disabilities."

The collection of fact sheets on this site contains information on six common visual diagnoses, as well as information on eye specialists and vision assessments.

Source: Blind Babies Foundation

Information about blindness, education and development, independent movement and travel, sports, games, and leisure activities can be found on this site.

This site features two newspaper articles about "small but significant breakthroughs" in science education for students who are blind: Camp Eureka, a natural history camp in Montana; and a dissection class at Colorado Center for the Blind.

Source: National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

Pat Munson, a longtime leader of the NFB, describes her life as a gardener. 

Source: NFB/Braille Monitor, February 2006

Links to fact sheets, publications, and related information.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO)

This link takes you directly to Chapter 30 of David Werner’s book, Disabled Village Children. with information about development, mobility, education, work, and social life, as well as vision, eye health, and prevention of blindness; also available in Spanish.

Source: Hesperian Foundation

Resources on various topics and services for individuals with vision impairment, legal blindness or deaf/blindness and intellectual disability.

Source: Commonwealth of Massachusetts

"...[D]escribes the variety of state infrastructures and programs ... that serve children and youth who are blind or visually impaired. Information was collected through a brief survey distributed to all state education agencies...."  Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Source: National Association of State Director of Special Education, Inc. (NASDSE)

Statistics are drawn from AFB and U.S. government sources, and organized by age, ethnicity, geography, and more.

Source: National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

Download this outline of the WBU’s comprehensive plan for the socio-economic integration of people with blindness, including a strategy for poverty reduction. From the General documents page, click the title Blindness, Poverty, and Development from the Development committee.

Source: World Blind Union (WBU)

"BANA's purpose is to promote and to facilitate the use, teaching and production of braille." It publishes codes, rules, interpretations, and opinions about braille, most of which can be downloaded from the site.

Source: Braille Authority of North America (BANA)

The braille section of the Paths to Literacy site offers an overview, instructional strategies, pre-braille, tactile graphics, technology for braille readers, sources of print/braille books, tools for writing braille, braille production, and brailler repair. Users may post content, and there is also a forum for questions and answers related to braille literacy.

Source: Paths to Literacy

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