Orientation and Mobility Resources

These sites explain the techniques, general importance, and necessity of Orientation and Mobility (O&M) training for people who are blind or visually impaired. The resources here cover the importance of O&M training, services and resources, specific skills, and how to assist someone who is blind or visually impaired if they need help.

Melvin Marx modifies applications in the foundational blue textbook, Orientation and Mobility Techniques, in order to serve his first encounter with a deafblind student.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Carolina Martinez and Kate Moss address the importance of movement in the development of children who are blind. Also available in Spanish.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Youngsters love to explore through play and try out new ideas and skills. These games create great opportunities to establish skills which will be meaningful for the child's mobility and development.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

This article emphasizes the importance of parents as teachers of mobility; based on a presentation by Joe Cutter to the Parents of Blind Children Seminar.

Source: Future Reflections, 2004, National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

Practical suggestions for modifications in the home and the environment to minimize tripping hazards.

Source: VisionAware

A strong collaboration between O&M instructor, family, and student results in better integration of mobility skills into everyday life.

Source: Future Reflections, Fall 2008

A primer full of advice and encouragement for adults who must learn how to get around independently after vision loss. Includes information about landmarks, public transportation, and using environmental sounds. (Requires Adobe
Acrobat Reader

Source: National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

AFB’s advice helps seniors travel and enjoy community resources safely and confidently.

Source: VisionAware

Fredric Schroeder's article, from the Future Reflections special issue on Cane Travel and Independence, explains the similarities and differences between adult cane training and training for children.

Source: Future Reflections, 2008, National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

This series of videos provides information on how to use the “sighted guide technique” to guide someone with vision loss while working, as well as how to offer assistance in various situations.  Videos include: Step 1: Introduction to Sighted Guide; Step 2: Basic Sighted Guide Techniques; Step 3: Going Through Doors; Step 4: Seating; Step-by-Step: Other Useful Guiding Tips; Step-by-Step: Safety; Step-by-Step: Additional Guiding Tips.

Source: CNIB

Newly updated in 2012, the 4-part TAPS curriculum can be purchased through TSBVI on their website, linked above. Comprehensive Initial and Ongoing Evaluation is sold separately.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Traditional Orientation and Mobility assessments for children may not take into account hearing loss and deafness.  Tanni Anthony describes a Transdisciplinary Play-Based model for children who are deafblind which can more thoroughly assess developmental milestones.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

In 1995, Dona Sauerburger, COMS authored this article about Pamela Matheson, an O&M instructor who uses a wheelchair herself.  Dona Sauerburger shares a reprint on her professional site.

Source: Dona Sauerburger

O&M Specialist and innovator Doug Baldwin shares his expertise and wisdom in this eBook.

Peggy Freeman's comprehensive program of care for parents of babies who are deafblind  with multiple disabilities includes sections on relationships, routines, vision, touch and touching, development of communication, moving/being moved, play, and signing.  Each section offers numerous concrete suggestions for activities to enjoy with your child.

Source: National Center on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB)

This article defines the role of Orientation and Mobility in the terms of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

A simple listing of developmental expectations for orientation and mobility, and environmental supports for reaching these goals.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired

A list of travel skills, particularly with public transportation, which can be next-step goals for older children. Also available in Spanish.

Source: FamilyConnect for Parents of Children with Visual Impairments

Tips for hospital personnel caring for people who are blind or visually impaired; includes suggestions for communication, guiding, and orienting the person to the room.

Source: Blindskills, Inc

This site offers tips, suggestions, and practical advice from experienced travelers who have traveled internationally with their guide dogs.

Source: Mobility International USA