Orientation and Mobility Resources

These sites explain the techniques, general importance, and necessity of Orientation and Mobility (O&M) training for people who are blind or visually impaired. The resources here cover the importance of O&M training, services and resources, specific skills, and how to assist someone who is blind or visually impaired if they need help.

Dr. Fredric K. Schroeder advocates early and consistent cane use by very young children who are blind in this Braille Monitor article.

Source: National Federation of the Blind

This is a directory of guide dog schools in the United States.

Source: American Foundation for the Blind (AFB)

GDUI is a consumer organization that promotes the civil rights and quality of life for teams, providing "peer support, advocacy and information to guide dog users everywhere."

Since 2008, Guiding Eyes has trained service dogs to work with young children with autism who live in the organization's geographic area. The waiting list is enormous and currently prevents the acceptance of new applications. Visit their website for inspiration and ideas for new programs.

Source: Guiding Eyes for the Blind

Starting with the home and expanding to the neighborhood, this article tells parents how to help preschoolers know where they are, how they got there, and how they can find the way back.

Source: FamilyConnect

O&M skills begin when a baby learns to balance and walk. Advice for enhancing confidence and development.

Source: FamilyConnect

This guide summarizes the various visual impairments a child will have after hemispherectomy, TPO disconnection, and occipital lobectomy, and how they can affect a child’s daily living, functional mobility, and access to the educational curriculum in school.

Source: Perkins eLearning

Educators and authors D. Jay Gense and Marilyn Gense provide educational strategies in this illustrated article that places Orientation & Mobility in context for learners with deafblindness. Also in PDF format, English or Spanish.

Source: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB)

This site includes links to a number of documents on the topic of designing accessible environments, including Addressing Barriers to Blind Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

Source: U.S. Access Board Resources

This peer-reviewed journal that explores issues and contributes new knowledge to the field of Orientation & Mobility (O&M) (including Guide Dog Mobility).

To promote Guide Dogs Week the makers of Dogcam sports cameras teamed up with Guide Dogs for the Blind's Southampton Mobility Team to film a guide dog's perspective of the world. This video is not audio described.

Source: Southampton Mobility Team

Begin your exploration of orientation and mobility topics for clients with deafblindness on the National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness page, where several resources are listed.

Source: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB)

This section of the Special Issue on Orientation and Mobility focuses on communicating with vision and hearing loss, and the use of hearing aids while traveling.

Source: VisionAware

AFB outlines the benefits and considerations of working with a guide dog.

Source: VisionAware

New Visions offers information to professionals and parents working with infants and children with feeding, swallowing, oral-motor, and pre-speech problems.

Source: New Visions

This short checklist from DVI Quarterly was developed by educators "to determine the need for an orientation and mobility evaluation for a student with multiple impairments by a certified O&M specialist."

Source: Council for Exceptional Children, Division on Visual Impairments (CECDVI)

There are several kinds of mobility devices that young children who are blind or severely visually impaired can learn to use. These devices, which probe the area ahead of the child, include kiddie canes and adapted canes, also known as pre-canes or alternative mobility devices. This site describes these devices; how parents and teachers can use them with young children; what children will learn; and where these devices can be purchased. Available in Spanish.

Source: FamilyConnect

The information in this section of the BCRC site is designed to help parents encourage movement in their young children who are blind.

Source: Blind Children's Resource Center

This division of NFB is made up of dog users, trainers, and raisers. In addition to supporting their membership, NAGDU promotes equal opportunity and access for guide dog users.

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