Behavior Resources

Any child may develop problem behaviors, but young ones with blindness or visual impairment are at risk for specific inappropriate behaviors, including repetitive mannerisms and self-stimulatory patterns. Parents and teachers will find explanations that help in understanding the reasons for the behavior, advice for appropriate interventions, and suggestions for reinforcing desirable behavior that will enhance the child's social success.

Occupational Therapist Linda C. Stephens provides an overview of some of the ways sensory integrative problems manifest themselves, including sensory defensiveness, activity levels, and behavior.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired(TSBVI)

This webpage offers guidelines for determining the best intervention for sleep disorders; includes links to related resources and articles.

Source: Utah Collaborative Medical Home Project

This phenomenon is described by some child behavior therapists as a type of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) often associated with autism. Tactile defensiveness can complicate tactile learning in children with visual impairments.


Some parents believe tactile defensiveness is over-diagnosed among children with visual impairments. Christine Faltz describes her experiences with her two children, and other parents contribute in the comments section below the article.

Source: National Federation of the Blind (NFB)

A rehabilitation program in Brazil that fosters collaboration between the home and school to teach children daily living skills.

Source: International Council for the Education of People with Visual Impairment (ICEVI)

This one-page tip sheet identifies key components of best practices, including functional age-appropriate curricula, inclusion, behavior issues, transition planning, and parent involvement.

Source: Nevada Dual Sensory Impairment Project

This website outlines two specific behavioral models for toilet training. There is also information on the role of the primary care physician, toilet training as a school goal, the home environment, and specific diagnostic groups.

Source: Utah Collaborative Medical Home Project

Developed for students ages 3 to 22, this curriculum focuses on developing life and career goals that enable student to maximize independence, self-determination, employability, and participation in the community.

Source: Perkins Products

Luisa Mayer, Ph.D., an internationally known specialist in visual field/functional vision testing describes strategies for assessing field loss and interpreting assessment results. A good explanation of visual field loss and impacts for laypersons and parents as well.

Source: Perkins eLearning

A wealth of information can be found here on all topics related to infants and toddlers, and the adults who spend time with them. The online information includes many specific tips on topics ranging from play to sleep.