Physical Education Resources

The resources in this section provide an introduction to the importance of physical education, fitness, and exercise to the well-being of people with visual impairments. It also includes ideas for adaptive physical education and strategies to encourage students who are blind or visually impaired to increase participation in gym class.

Lauren Lieberman shares her top 5 tips for including students who are blind or visually impaired in physical education classes.  Includes links to resources and related articles.

Source: Shape America

Physical education teachers learn what they "should keep in mind when working with a student with a visual impairment," including a list of instructional strategies and suggested modifications of the environment.

Source: PELinks4U

This site provides information about how to become an adapted physical education instructor, how IEPs are tied to Physical Education, the role of the adapted phys. ed. teacher, national standards and certification, and adapted physical education for students who are blind or visually impaired.


A range of resources can be found here, including general adaptations, assessment instruments, information for parents, products, and research.

Source: PE Central

APENS promotes the standards for adapted physical educators. This site contains information on Adapted Physical Education, including history and related links.

This article by Lauren Lieberman offers some important guidelines for developing and adapting activities for people who are deafblind. Specific examples are included.

Source: National Center on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB)

This 7-minute video was created by Elina Mullen, Ed.D. and demonstrates different types of equipment for various sports, such as hockey, racquet games, and more.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired

Matt LaCortiglia, Adaptive Physical Education Teacher at Perkins School for the Blind, presents a FAIER planning model to develop physical activities for individuals with disabilities.

Source: Perkins School for the Blind

ABSF is committed to serving blind and visually impaired children and adults, giving them the opportunities and experiences that build confidence and independence that can last a lifetime.

Source: American Blind Skiing Foundation

Dr. Lauren Lieberman and Katrina Arndt discuss the difference between discrete and continuous activity and the implications of this type of categorization on communication.

Source: Deaf-Blind Perspectives

The CEC's Division on Visual Impairment and Deafblindness advances the education of children and youth who have visual impairments or deafblindness. Browse selected articles and position papers here.

Source: Council for Exceptional Children

Darren Burton and Lee Huffman discuss some of the issues involved in working out at your local gym or fitness center and the accessibility of various types of exercise equipment.

Source: AFB Access World

Lauren Lieberman outlines techniques to promote fitness at home and in the community, with recommendations and resources.

Source: The National Center on Health, Physical Activity, and Disability

A brief explanation of the typical adaptations to competitive sports that accommodate for visual impairment.

Source: Wired Magazine

Video presenting practical methods for including a student with a visual impairment in physical education.

Source: Statewide Vision Resource Centre, Victoria (Australia)

Inclusive Fitness, or Inclusive Physical Education, is a mission of the National Center on Health, Physical Activity, and Disability (NCHPAD). This paper addresses ways that PE instructors and coaches can think about appropriate participation for their students through analysis and planning.

Source: Inclusive Fitness

IBGA provides introductory information to the sport, as well as a list of member countries and a calendar of events.

Source: International Blind Golf Association

IBSA offers information on specific sports, multimedia presentations, a calendar of international competitions, and links to numerous organizations; available in English and Spanish.

These pages include coaching tips, rules for the visually impaired in judo competitions, benefits of judo, and other related articles.

For a personal narrative on the experience of judo from a person who is blind, read this blog entry, with additional links and resources.

Source: Fred's Head blog (APH)