BS: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1976.
MD: West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, 1982.
Internship: Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982-1983.
Residency: Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 1985-1988.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 1988-1989.