Orientation and Mobility Resources

These sites explain the techniques, general importance, and necessity of Orientation and Mobility (O&M) training for people who are blind or visually impaired. The resources here cover the importance of O&M training, services and resources, specific skills, and how to assist someone who is blind or visually impaired if they need help.

This section of the Special Issue on Orientation and Mobility focuses on communicating with vision and hearing loss, and the use of hearing aids while traveling.

Source: VisionAware

AFB outlines the benefits and considerations of working with a guide dog.

Source: VisionAware

New Visions offers information to professionals and parents working with infants and children with feeding, swallowing, oral-motor, and pre-speech problems.

Source: New Visions

This short checklist from DVI Quarterly was developed by educators "to determine the need for an orientation and mobility evaluation for a student with multiple impairments by a certified O&M specialist."

Source: Council for Exceptional Children, Division on Visual Impairments (CECDVI)

There are several kinds of mobility devices that young children who are blind or severely visually impaired can learn to use. These devices, which probe the area ahead of the child, include kiddie canes and adapted canes, also known as pre-canes or alternative mobility devices. This site describes these devices; how parents and teachers can use them with young children; what children will learn; and where these devices can be purchased. Available in Spanish.

Source: FamilyConnect

The information in this section of the BCRC site is designed to help parents encourage movement in their young children who are blind.

Source: Blind Children's Resource Center

This division of NFB is made up of dog users, trainers, and raisers. In addition to supporting their membership, NAGDU promotes equal opportunity and access for guide dog users.

NCDB is a national technical assistance and dissemination center for information about deafblindness. While most resources focus on the needs of children and youth, there is wealth of information here in the Adult Services section.

Common concerns about activities daily life, including reading, mobility, recreation, and household management

Source: National Federation of the Blind

Dr. Penny Rosenblum, of the University of Arizona, discusses the development of navigational and social skills for youth who are visually impaired and unable to drive. Dr. Rosenblum also shares personal experiences with the impact of a visual impairment on the lives of young people.

Source: Perkins eLearning, Perkins School for the Blind

UMass Boston's NERCVE offers online training in O&M, including courses in Physical and Functional Aspects of O&M, O&M Assessment, Implications of Low Vision, and Psycho-Social Aspects of Visual Impairments.

Source: University of Massachusetts Boston (umb.edu)

Diagnostic activities for determining whether a student needs a formal evaluation by a certified O&M Instructor.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

James Scott Crawford provides detailed suggestions for teaching O&M techniques to individuals who use wheelchairs. It includes sections on sighted guides, trailing, cane techniques, monitoring safety, street crossings, and a skills checklist.

Source: Affiliated Blind of Louisiana

Joe Cutter, Early Childhood O&M specialist with the NJ Commission for the Blind, shares his thoughts on teaching Orientation and Mobility to young children. He addresses the topics of independence, visual development, and other issues in early childhood.

Source: Blind Children's Resource Center

This article by Jill Brody discusses the role of occupational therapists, definitions, and intervention strategies for working with young children with visual impairments and additional disabilities.

Source: Project SALUTE

Babies who are born blind or visually impaired need body awareness and orientation skills from the very beginning. WonderBaby gets you started with Games You Can Play Now.

Source: WonderBaby.org

A checklist of skills and knowledge necessary for teens who have recently experienced a vision loss. Also available in Spanish.

Source: FamilyConnect

This site provides an overview on Orientation and Mobility Specialists including academic requirements and a resources section. It makes online Orientation & Mobility information easy to find for instructors and other professionals.

Source: ExploreHEALTHCareers.org

Dona Sauerburger is an Orientation and Mobility Specialist whose website contains this resource list of handouts and fact sheets.

Source: Dona Sauerburger