General Teaching Tips Resources

These resources for teachers offer advice, professional supports, and explanation of team roles and responsibilities in the education of students who are blind or visually impaired.

NCBYS drives "innovation in education and employment to the blind in STEM [science, technology, engineering, and math] subjects and careers by serving as a national clearinghouse of resources and expertise related to nonvisual scientific exploration." It includes sections for students, teachers and parents, resources, programs, and careers.

General guidelines for developing programs for students with visual impairment and additional disabilities, including deafblindness. Includes background information, the range of service delivery options, Indian disability legislation, resources for teacher training, and sample forms.

Source: Voice and Vision (India)

This document includes the following links: Science Teaching Standards, Standards for Professional Development for Teachers of Science, Assessment in Science Education, and Science Content Standards.

NSTA "is the largest organization in the world committed to promoting excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning for all." The site contains resources for parents and information on teaching students with disabilities.

An annotated bibliography of Mathematics information on the World Wide Web, compiled and reviewed by the NCAC. This resource is not dated. Some web addresses may have changed.

Source: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum

Through extensive research, the National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) at WBGH in Boston has provided an extensive set of image guidelines.  These were, at first, mainly guidelines for STEM images but have expanded to include images from the social sciences, including art, photographs, and maps. 

The guidelines are well-written and provide clarity on description of a images of all types. 

Questions, answers, and differing opinions about the use of Nemeth Code in math education.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired and Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Servi

Lisa Ricketts, OTR, discusses the impact of visual impairment on sensory integration, and how sensory integration disorder manifests in students with blindness and visual impairments. Treatment approaches and educational interventions are also described.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

The Accessible Science website from Perkins eLearning offers a number of resources and articles related to oceanography and students who are blind or visually impaired.

Source: Perkins eLearning Accessible Science

This 27-page handbook for students, school counselors, teachers, and parents provides an overview of transition to postsecondary education, including information on laws and regulations, planning and preparing, definitions, and resources. It also contains an exploration worksheet for examining choices, selecting, and applying for postsecondary education. Also available in Spanish.

Source: Wisconsin State Department of Public Instruction

Downloadable worksheets and assessment tools for determining a student's O&M needs and goals.

Source: Michigan Department Of Education/Low Incidence Outreach

An outline for teaching Nemeth code. She includes strategies for teaching young adults who are newly blind and adults who are new to Nemeth. Links to learning resources are provided. 

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Dr. Stephanie MacFarland, who specializes in training teachers of students with multiple disabilities, outlines van Dijk's learning theory for children who are deafblind.

Source: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness

This article explains how to organize the path to developmental milestones as simple, teachable steps.


Brazilian trainers share their expertise in “Professionals and Parents--Partners in Habilitation and Rehabilitation of Visually Impaired Children: A Successful Experience”; in Portuguese.

Source: International Council for the Education of People with Visual Impairment (ICEVI)

​This online handbook covers the range, from basic number facts to advanced mathematics, and includes a handbook for spoken mathematics.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Project SALUTE describes the hierarchy of communication symbols, from most abstract to most concrete. Color photographs of each of the eleven symbols are included; available in English and Spanish. 

In a 90-minute recorded webinar, Dr. Lauren Lieberman discusses helping individuals who are deafblind to develop an interest in recreational activities. She offers suggestions on individualizing one's approach, researching communication patterns, developing a plan, and maintaining interest.

Source: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB)