Assessment Resources

This section provides resources about different assessment tools and when they might be most helpful. This can be complex because there is no single assessment tool for students with visual impairments. Instead, there are various tools specific to different needs - some for skills, some for cognitive assessment, some for other needs.

It is crucial to remember that the vast majority of assessment tools are designed for students who are sighted, and assessment tools should not penalize students with visual impairments for not being able to perform tasks that require vision.

Most teachers use a combination of formal and informal assessment tools. Some are designed specifically for students with visual impairments, while others are adapted or modified.

The Annual Child Count provides a "snapshot of the characteristics, educational settings, and living arrangements of children and youth who are deafblind."

Source: NCDB (National Center on Deaf-Blindness)

An annotated bibliography of Mathematics information on the World Wide Web, compiled and reviewed by the NCAC. This resource is not dated. Some web addresses may have changed.

Source: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum

Questions, answers, and differing opinions about the use of Nemeth Code in math education.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired and Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Servi

UMass Boston's NERCVE offers online training in O&M, including courses in Physical and Functional Aspects of O&M, O&M Assessment, Implications of Low Vision, and Psycho-Social Aspects of Visual Impairments.

Source: University of Massachusetts Boston (

Deborah Gleason, Regional Coordinator of the Hilton/Perkins Program, provides guidelines to determine how a child learns most effectively, how adults can support this learning, and what environmental conditions are best.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Lisa Ricketts, OTR, discusses the impact of visual impairment on sensory integration, and how sensory integration disorder manifests in students with blindness and visual impairments. Treatment approaches and educational interventions are also described.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)

Explains the offerings of low vision programs and gives pointers on getting the best services for your child.

Source: Future Reflections, Summer 1992

This 27-page handbook for students, school counselors, teachers, and parents provides an overview of transition to postsecondary education, including information on laws and regulations, planning and preparing, definitions, and resources. It also contains an exploration worksheet for examining choices, selecting, and applying for postsecondary education. Also available in Spanish.

Source: Wisconsin State Department of Public Instruction

Information on Optic Nerve Atrophy disorder, symptoms, behaviors, research and links to related sites.

Source: U.S.National Library of Health- Pubmed Health

This site provides information about the vision care field, with resources on training, career and salaries as an optician.


A checklist of skills and knowledge necessary for teens who have recently experienced a vision loss. Also available in Spanish.

Source: FamilyConnect

What to expect from your young child's orientation and mobility (O&M) assessment. Also available in Spanish.

Source: FamilyConnect

O&MSRS is a tool for assessing a students needs and abilities, and designing an appropriate O&M program. The O&MSRS+ is for students with additional disabilities.

This site includes a searchable knowledgebase, an Ask the Doctor forum, videos, news, and article reviews.

This site offers an overview, a self-study course with a quiz section to test your comprehension, readings, activities, resources, and more.

Source: Cornell University

Harvey Mar and Karen Goehl present the PHASES Project, an approach to the assessment of students with deafblindness that emphasizes evaluation in natural contexts and situations. 

Source: Indiana Deafblind Services Project

A research-backed guide for physicians in evaluating the ability of older people to continue driving. Includes an assessment tool, information on conditions that can impact driving ability, advice for counseling patients, and more.

Source: American Medical Association

This position paper was developed to disseminate “key points and guidelines” in intelligence testing of individuals who are blind and visually impaired.

Source: American Printing House for the Blind (APH)

NCDB provides links to articles and publications, bibliographies, and Internet resources related to postsecondary education for students who are deafblind.

Source: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness

Dr. Virginia Bishop explains the vision screening process and provides a parent questionnaire.

Source: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI)